Biographical Appendix of Women Activists 2


  1. Adele Azar, born in Jaffa. She founded the Orthodox Ladies Society of Jaffa in 1910, with the intention of assisting orphaned and disadvantaged girls to receive education. Adele served as the president of the society, and she was also the principal of the Orthodox Girls’ School. Among the teachers who worked at the school were: Najla Mousa, Souria Battikha. Adele was among the delegation that met Huda Sha’rawi and appears in the Photo.[1]
  1. Kalthūm ‘Odeh (1892-1965), born in Nazareth. A writer and an activist. Kalthūm story could be exceptionally different, since she contributed to her Palestinian plight while she was in Russia. She wrote to Stalin and protested against the Zionist movement, which held to her imprisonment. She studied in her early life in the Russian school in Beit jala, and married to a Russian. [2] [3]
  1. Ni’mati ‘Alami Husseini (1895- 1982), Ni’mati was among the founders the Women Arab Movement in 1929. She was among the women activists and participated in meetings and in the demonstrations along the late 20s and the 30s. Ni’mati spoke four languages along with Arabic. She appears in the photo with the women’s delegation with Huda Sha’rawi.[4][5] She was the wife of Jamāl Husseini and mother of Serene Husseini Shahid. She was the daughter of Faidi Alami the mayor of Jerusalem in 1906, and the sister of Mūsa ‘Alami who was a major figure in the political activism on the Palestinian sphere in that period.
  1. Anbara Salām Khalidi (1897- 1986), was born in Beirut She lived in Beirut until she moved to Jerusalem with her husband Ahmad Samih Khalidi at the age of thirty. As a girl she grew up within the strict culture of closure on women and firm Islamic teaching, and women inside it were still nothing but complimentary. Maybe, women political participation and resistance roles took a faster development than that of their own personal rights. She was highly appreciated by the time she was less than twenty, a main public figure in education and women’s rights, she would make a speech in front of generals and kings, but all with her face veiled. People would applaud highly for her courage and outstanding commitment, but on the day she dared to make a speech without a veil, riots went out against her, and she was and her family the topic of societal criticism that occupied them more than the occupying colonial forces. She was committed to charity work and women rights. She participated in the first women congress in Cairo In Jerusalem she continued to participate in women movement and was active. She was among the women who received Huda Sha’rawi in her historical visit to Jerusalem. She translated the Iliad and the Odyssey into Arabic.[6][7]
  1. Matiel Mughannam (1900-1987)[8]. Matiel moved to Jerusalem with her husband in 1921. She was very active in the Palestinian liberal movement in the thirties and wrote numerous articles. She founded the Cultural Club in Jerusalem .In April 15th 1933, and while protesting the visit of lord Allenby and lord Swanton to Jerusalem. Palestinian women walked under a heavy rainy day, and walked through Omar Mosque opposite to the holy Sepulcher. Where Matiel made a speech and the march went to the holy tomb where Tarab ‘Abdel Hadi made a speech. Mughannam is the author of The Arab Woman and the Palestine Problem (London: Joseph, 1937). She attended the Cairo Conference in 1933. [9] She joined the Defense party with her husband. Upon moving to Ramallah in 1939, she founded the Ramallah Women’s Union and became the president until she moved to the states in the 1950s.[10] She appears in the photo with Huda Sha’rawi.[11][12]

[1] Najjar, pg 204-205,


[3] Najjar, 265-270

[4]Husseini, Serene: Jerusalem Memories. Publisher: nofal Inst. 2000.

[5] Najjar, pg 201-207, 312

[6] Khalidi Anbara

[7] Najjar, 285-288

[8] According to Fleischmann’s the nation and its new Women, Matiel died in 1992 in the U.S.

[9] Khalidi Walid, before their Diaspora. Pg 101.

[10] Fleishmann Ellen, The Nation and its new Women. Pg 216.

[11] Sabella, Bernard. Palestinian Christians in Jerusalem and Churches.

[12] Najjar, 308-310, 246

Leave a Reply